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Tidy data [wrangle]

(Builds on: Exploratory data analysis (1D))
(Leads to: Parsing details, Separate and unite, Spreading and gathering)

A tidy data frame is a data frame (or tibble) where the variables in columns, and the cases (or observations) are in the rows. All the of the built-in datasets that you’ve worked with so far have been tidy, but you’ll soon encounter new datasets that need to be tidied before you can work with them.